Eight years after the 2011 protests in several Arab countries, the region is still volatile. Three countries are at war (Syria, Yemen, Libya), two have experienced this year the renegade of their authoritarian rulers (Algeria, Sudan) and protests continue in several other states, including Tunisia, from which was left, late 2010, the "Arab Spring".
Monarchies have been relatively stable, countering contestation by limited reforms (Morocco, Jordan), oil wealth (petro-monarchies of the Gulf region) or violent foreign-backed repression (Bahrain).
As a result, most development indicators have declined, particularly in Syria. In this war-torn country, life expectancy, which had fallen sharply, is timidly back to its 1992 level.
The report drawn up by the NGO Transparency International also shows a high degree of corruption that is plaguing societies.